Creating Automated Tests with Windows Native Applications

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I’ve been spoiled by the relative ease of creating automated tests for web applications and web pages, as “driving” those interfaces using elements like xPaths and IDs is often a straightforward process – assuming I’m not working with something sloppily written and/or ancient.  Terminal applications are generally easy as well given their basic nature.  Windows native applications on the other hand can be tricky, as we need to take a few extra steps to track down unique identifiers for the objects that we want to interact with and control.  Sometimes objects will use the same identifiers or perhaps certain elements will just outright refuse to work because the Test Automation Gods don’t want to make things too easy for you, and in those instances, you can still automate but it will take a bit more effort.

To locate and leverage elements in native applications, we’ll need to download a few free Microsoft utilities:

  • MS WinAppDriver – This leverages the Selenium WebDriver protocol and allows us “web element like” access to elements in native applications in Windows 10.
  • MS WinAppDriver UI Recorder – This tool will help you find xPaths, in the event other elements aren’t available.
  • MS Windows Inspect – Available in the Windows SDK, this handy app helps you find elements to interact with objects in native applications.  There are other utilities out there on the Internets® that do the same thing and I’ve tried a few of them, but I very much prefer the official Windows Inspect for its simple-but-clean interface and stability.
  • MS Bob – Just kidding.  By the way, the Microsoft Bob story is worth a read if you missed that whole debacle.
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Install the WinAppDriver first, and in “Windows Settings > Update & Security > For Developers:” select the option to enable Developer mode.  Next, install the Windows SDK so we can use Inspect utility to investigate applications for their elements.

Every object in a native application has a variety of elements (or “locator types”) associated with it, and we are especially interested in a handful of them.  We want to track down Name and AutomationID, and if we can’t use either one of those, then we may need to involve LocalizedControlType and wrangle with the xPath.  I have never used them in my test automation solution, but I’ve also heard of people identifying and controlling specific native objects with RuntimeID and ClassName.  In the event it exists and works, the Name field is my favorite choice because it helps make the test script more readable.

Let’s use Inspect to find some controllable elements in a basic calculator application:

We’ve chosen “UI Automation” in the dropdown box in the Inspect utility, and using the mouse we select the clear button in the calculator application.  Information for the button element is then populated in Inspect. You will receive a bunch of unwanted details.  We have a Name, AutomationID, and LocalizedControlType and so the only fields we are truly interested in are all there.  What if they weren’t or if there was duplicate information?  In that case we can create a relative xPath or find an absolute xPath; the latter can be made easier using WinAppDriver UI Recorder.

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Creating a relative xPath can be as simple as joining elements together and so we can combine LocalizedControlType and AutomationID to create: “//*[@LocalizedControlType=’button’ and @AutomationID=’81’]”.

Let’s use the handy WinAppDriver UI Recorder to get the absolute xPath:

We click the Record in the Recorder utility, select the clear button in our calculator again, and this results in the ugly-but-useful absolute xPath being populated in the top panel of the UI Recorder.  The full absolute xPath is unwieldy and makes your scripts less readable, but it may prove to be a necessary evil if you can’t use Name or AutomationID.

In the rare event you come across a weird element that you just can’t find a way to control, like some oddball popup dialog box in an old application or an obscure object buried in the deep recesses of a datagrid, you could try interacting with a nearby element and use keyboard shortcuts to navigate over to the trouble object or, assuming your test automation solution allows, you can also try accessing it via cursor position and/or images as a last resort.  These situations should be uncommon though, and I think you will find that most objects in Windows native applications have some element that you can leverage for test automation.

This post was written by:

James Prior
Technical Pre-Sales Consultant

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